Slavery is officially ingrained into US culture at the British Colony of Jamestown, Virginia. The arrival at Point Comfort by the first documented slave traders marked a new chapter in the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, which began in the early 1500s & continued into the mid-1800s, destroying over 12 million African lives.
Anti-miscegenation laws date back to colonial times. The first such statute was passed in Virginia in1691. Other colonies followed suit. These laws were an American invention. There was no ban on interracial marriage in England at the time. By the late 1800s, 38 states had anti-miscegenation statutes. As late as 1924 these laws were on the books in 29 states. Anti-miscegenation laws varied greatly in the way they defined whom one could and could not marry.
Although the Three-Fifths Compromise is often viewed as a means of assigning 3/5 of the value of a white person on a black slave - the clause was so much more. The compromise effectively gave slaveholding states extra representation in the Federal government. The
Three-Fifths Compromise, was an agreement between delegates from the Northern and the Southern states at the United States Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
beginning of Women's suffrage movement
Seneca Falls Convention held in Seneca, NY. First women’s rights convention of 300 men and women. Many signed the “Declaration of Sentiments” which listed the variety of ways women had been disenfranchised from American society
Missouri v Celia was an 1855 murder trial held in the Circuit Court of Callaway County, Missouri, in which a slave woman named Celia was tried for the first-degree murder of her owner, Robert Newsom who had repeatedly raped her. Celia was convicted by a jury of twelve white men and sentenced to death. An appeal of the conviction was denied by the Supreme Court of Missouri in December 1855, and Celia was hanged on December 21, 1855.
On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that as of January 1, 1863, all enslaved people in the states currently engaged in rebellion against the Union “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
Juneteenth is the oldest nationally celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the US. It was on June 19th 1865 that the Union soldiers, led by Major General Granger, landed at Galveston, Texas with news that the war had ended & the enslaved were now free. Note that this was 2.5 years after President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.
The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865 in the aftermath of the Civil War, abolished slavery in the United States. The 13th Amendment states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Passed by a political system in which Blacks effectively had no voice, the Black Codes were enforced by all-White police and state militia forces—often made up of Confederate veterans of the Civil War—across the South. White southerners showed a steadfast commitment to ensuring their supremacy & the survival of plantation agriculture in the postwar years. Support for Reconstruction policies waned after the early 1870s, undermined by the violence of white supremacist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan.
Most prominent in counties where the races were relatively equal in number, the Klu Klux Klan engaged in terrorist raids against African Americans and white Republicans at night, employing intimidation, destruction of property, assault, and murder to achieve its aims and influence upcoming elections.
The Jim Crow Era began in 1877 and continued well into the 1960's. The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America; treating blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions; any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations; if necessary, violence must be used to keep blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy.
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an 1892 incident in which African American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between whites and blacks was not unconstitutional. As a result, restrictive Jim Crow legislation and separate public accommodations based on race became commonplace.
For many women, the 19th Amendment was only the beginning of a much longer fight. When the 19th Amendment became law on August 26, 1920, 26 million adult female Americans were nominally eligible to vote. But full electoral equality was still decades away for many women of color who counted among that number.
LGBTQ+ community finally gets a voice - temporarily
The Society for Human Rights is founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago. The society is the first gay rights organization as well as the oldest documented in America. After receiving a charter from the state of Illinois, the society publishes the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Soon after its founding, the society disbands due to political pressure.
The 1924 Immigration Act tapped into a xenophobia with deep roots in the U.S. history. Having lost the national debate when it came to restricting Mexicans, white supremacists — fearing that the country’s open-border policy with Mexico was hastening the “mongrelization” of the United States — took control of the U.S. Border Patrol, also established in 1924, and turned it into a frontline instrument of brutal race vigilantism.
League of United Latin American Citizens
Several Latino service organizations merge to form the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). The group organizes against discrimination and segregation and promotes education among Latinos. It's the largest and longest-lasting Latino civil rights group in the country.
The Great Depression impacted African Americans for decades to come. It spurred the rise of African-American activism, which laid the groundwork for the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s. The popularity of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal program also saw African Americans switch their political allegiances to become a core part of the Democratic Party’s voting demographic.
The case of the Scottsboro Boys, which lasted more than 80 years, helped to spur the Civil Rights Movement. The perseverance of the Scottsboro Boys and the attorneys and community leaders who supported their case helped to inspire several prominent activists and organizers. To Kill a Mockingbird, the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by white author Harper Lee, is also loosely based on this case.
Tuskegee study - horrific medical abuse of bipoc men
The Tuskegee Study is perhaps the most enduring wound in American health science. Known officially as the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, the 40-year experiment run by Public Health Service officials followed 600 rural black men in Alabama over the course of their lives, refusing to tell patients their diagnosis, refusing to treat them for the debilitating disease, and actively denying some of them treatment. The goal was to “observe the natural history of untreated syphilis” in Black populations, but the subjects were completely unaware and were instead told they were receiving treatment for bad blood when in fact, they received no treatment at all.
redlining - racism in housing markets & bank loans
A dividing process known as Redlining denied people of color—especially Black people—access to mortgage refinancing and federal underwriting opportunities while perpetuating the notion that residents of color were financially risky and a threat to local property values.As a result, just 2% of the $120 billion in FHA loans distributed between 1934 and 1962 were given to nonwhite families. Today, approximately 3 in 4 neighborhoods—74%—that the HOLC deemed “hazardous” in the 1930s remain low to moderate income, and more than 60% are predominantly nonwhite.
Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune established the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) on December 5, 1935. With the support of several African-American women’s organizations, the NCNW’s mission was to unify African-American women to improve race relations in the United States and abroad.
The Alien Registration Act was passed by Congress in 1940. The Act made it illegal for any resident or citizen of the United States of America to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. The law also forced non-citizens to register with the U.S. government so that the government would be able to track them and their possible un-American ideas which may or may not lead to the overthrow of the government. "... this Act is based on fear, rather than confidence in people to have open debates and determine their own beliefs and their future actions. The Act is a threat to the freedom of speech, but it is an even greater threat to democracy. It does not only affect those involved in subversive groups or actions. It affects every individual who resides in these United States."
The Congress of Racial Equality pioneered direct nonviolent action in the 1940s before playing a major part in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Founded by an interracial group of pacifists at the University of Chicago in 1942, CORE used nonviolent tactics to challenge segregation in Northern cities during the 1940s. Members staged sit-ins at Chicago, Illinois area restaurants and challenged restrictive housing covenants. Early expansion beyond the University of Chicago brought students from across the Midwest into the organization, and whites made up a majority of the membership into the early 1960s.
zoot suit riots - the attack on minority communities
The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of violent clashes during which mobs of U.S. servicemen, off-duty police officers, and civilians brawled with young Latinos and other minorities in Los Angeles. The June 1943 riots took their name from the baggy suits worn by many minority youths during that era, but the violence was more about racial tension than fashion.
In Los Angeles, on November 11, 1950 gay rights activist Harry Hay founded America’s first sustained national gay rights organization. In an attempt to change public perception of homosexuality, the Mattachine Society aims to "eliminate discrimination, derision, prejudice and bigotry," to assimilate the gay community into mainstream society, and to cultivate the notion of an "ethical homosexual culture."
A Senate report titled "Employment of Homosexuals and Other Sex Perverts in Government" is distributed to members of Congress after the federal government had covertly investigated employees' sexual orientation at the beginning of the Cold War. The report states since homosexuality is a mental illness, homosexuals "constitute security risks" to the nation because "those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons."
Much of our memory of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s is embodied in dramatic photographs, newsreels, and recorded speeches, which America encountered in daily papers and the nightly news. When most Americans think of the Civil Rights Movement, they have in mind a span of time beginning with the 1954 Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late 1960s or early 1970s.
The American Psychiatric Association lists homosexuality as a sociopathic personality disturbance in its first publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Immediately following the manual's release, many professionals in medicine, mental health and social sciences criticize the categorization due to lack of empirical and scientific data.
Government issues appalling order vilifying lgbtq+
President Dwight Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10450, banning homosexuals from working for the federal government or any of its private contractors. The Order lists homosexuals as security risks, along with alcoholics and neurotics. Under the order thousands of lesbian and gay applicants were barred from federal employment and over 5,000 federal employees were fired under suspicions of being homosexual. It came as a part of the US "Lavender Scare" witch hunts which contributed to and complemented the McCarthyist Red Scare.It was not until 1973 that a federal judge ruled that a person's sexual orientation alone could not be the sole reason for termination from federal employment, and not until 1975 that the United States Civil Service Commission announced that they would consider applications by gays and lesbians on a case by case basis.
brown v. board - a stepping stone for bipoc rights
Although the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v Board was ultimately unanimous, it occurred only after a hard-fought, multi-year campaign to persuade all nine justices to overturn the “separate but equal” doctrine that their predecessors had endorsed in the Court’s infamous 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
During the civil rights movement, anybody who stood up for the rights of African Americans was a possible assassination target. Often times the assassinations were carried out by white supremacists, who were not convicted for their crimes due to racism in government, or even by police departments. These assassinated leaders have left their legacy as martyrs for the Civil Rights movement and the struggle for African people in America and abroad. The most notable assassinations of Civil Rights Leaders are Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968, President John F. Kennedy also in 1968, and Malcolm X in 1965.
In San Francisco, the Daughters of Bilitis becomes the first lesbian rights organization in the United States. The organization hosts social functions, providing alternatives to lesbian bars and clubs, which are frequently raided by police. As the DOB gained members, their focus shifted to providing support to women who were afraid to come out. The DOB educated them about their rights, and about gay history. The Daughters of Bilitis endured for 14 years, becoming an educational resource for lesbians, gay men, researchers and mental health professionals.
Colvin, Browder, & Parks along with other early protestors sparked a yearlong boycott of the Montgomery bus system. The boycott culminated in the desegregation of public transportation in Alabama & throughout the country. Although the movement is best known for catapulting the career of a young reverend, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the boycott was largely planned & executed by African American women.
the little rock nine face racism, hatred, & violence
The Little Rock Nine were a group of nine black students who enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957. Their attendance at the school was a test of Brown v. Board of Education, a landmark 1954 Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
civil rights act of 1957 - another 1st step for bipoc
On September 9, 1957, President Eisenhower signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Originally proposed by Attorney General Herbert Brownell, the Act marked the first occasion since Reconstruction that the federal government undertook significant legislative action to protect civil rights. Although influential southern congressman whittled down the bill's initial scope, it still included a number of important provisions for the protection of voting rights.
one v. olesen - 1st step in addressing lgbtq+ rights
In the landmark case One, Inc. v. Olesen, the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of the First Amendment rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) magazine "One: The Homosexual Magazine." The suit was filed after the U.S. Postal Service and FBI declared the magazine obscene material, and it marks the first time the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of homosexuals.
Woolworth's & the sit-ins - another stepping stone
On February 1, 1960, four college students took a stand against segregation in Greensboro, North Carolina when they refused to leave a Woolworth’s lunch counter without being served.
Over the next several days, hundreds of people joined their cause in what became known as the Greensboro sit-ins. After some were arrested and charged with trespassing, protesters launched a boycott of all segregated lunch counters until the owners caved and the original four students were finally served at the Woolworth’s lunch counter where they’d first stood their ground.
freedom riders make history in the face of violence
Freedom Riders were groups of Black & White Civil Rights activists who participated in Freedom Rides, bus trips through the American South in 1961 to protest segregated bus terminals. Freedom Riders tried to use “whites-only” restrooms and lunch counters at bus stations in Alabama, South Carolina and other Southern states. The groups were confronted by arresting police officers—as well as horrific violence from white protestors—along their routes, but also drew international attention to the civil rights movement.
In January of 1963, following his election as Governor of Alabama, George Wallace famously stated in his inaugural address: "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
The staunch conservative demonstrated his loyalty to the cause on June 11, when Black students Vivian Malone and James A. Hood showed up at the University of Alabama campus to attend class. In what historians often refer to as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door," the governor literally stood in the doorway as federal authorities tried to allow the students to enter. When Wallace refused to budge, President John F. Kennedy called for 100 troops from the Alabama National Guard to assist federal officials.
The March on Washington was a massive protest march that occurred in August 1963, when some 250,000 people gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Also known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the event aimed to draw attention to continuing challenges and inequalities faced by African Americans a century after emancipation. It was also the occasion of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s now-iconic “I Have A Dream” speech.
The Birmingham church bombing occurred on September 15, 1963, when a bomb exploded before Sunday morning services at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama—a church with a predominantly black congregation that also served as a meeting place for civil rights leaders. Four young girls were killed and many other people injured. Outrage over the incident and the violent clash between protesters and police that followed helped draw national attention to the hard-fought, often-dangerous struggle for civil rights for African Americans. The bombing was the 3rd in 11 days, after a federal court order had come down mandating the integration of Alabama’s school system.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the nation's premier civil rights legislation. The Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, required equal access to public places and employment, and enforced desegregation of schools and the right to vote. It did not end discrimination, but it did open the door to further progress.
On March 7, 1965, when then-25-year-old activist John Lewis led over 600 marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama and faced brutal attacks by oncoming state troopers, footage of the violence collectively shocked the nation and galvanized the fight against racial injustice. Outrage at “Bloody Sunday” swept the country. Supporters staged sit-ins, traffic blockades and demonstrations in solidarity with the voting rights marchers.
voting rights act of 1965 - 1st step on a long road
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Voting Rights Act is considered one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history.
Members of the Mattachine Society stage a "sip-in" at the Julius Bar in Greenwich Village, where the New York Liquor Authority prohibits serving gay patrons in bars on the basis that homosexuals are "disorderly." Society president Dick Leitsch and other members announce their homosexuality and are immediately refused service.
Following the sip-in, the Mattachine Society will sue the New York Liquor Authority. Although no laws are overturned, the New York City Commission on Human Rights declares that homosexuals have the right to be served.
compton cafeteria riot - milestone in lgbtq+ rights
The Compton's Cafeteria Riot occurred in August 1966 in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. The incident was one of the first LGBT-related riots in United States history, preceding the more famous 1969 Stonewall Riots in New York City. It marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco. The riots had many silver linings including the establishment of the National Transsexual Counseling Unit, the Vanguard's historic "street sweep", and the turning point in the local LGBTQ+ movement.
loving v. Virginia-interracial marriage deemed legal
Loving v. Virginia was a Supreme Court case that struck down state laws banning interracial marriage in the United States. The plaintiffs in the case were Richard and Mildred Loving, a white man and Black woman whose marriage was deemed illegal according to Virginia state law. With the help of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the Lovings appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled unanimously that so-called “anti-miscegenation” statutes were unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. The decision is often cited as a watershed moment in the dismantling of “Jim Crow” race laws.
fair housing act - in the wake of dr. king's murder
The Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin or sex. Intended as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the bill was the subject of a contentious debate in the Senate, but was passed quickly by the House of Representatives in the days after the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. The Fair Housing Act stands as the final great legislative achievement of the civil rights era.
stonewall uprising - the origin of lgbtq+ movement
Patrons of the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village riot when police officers attempt to raid the popular gay bar around 1am. Since its establishment in 1967, the bar had been frequently raided by police officers trying to clean up the neighborhood of "sexual deviants."
Angry gay youth clash with aggressive police officers in the streets, leading to a six-day riot during which thousands of protestors receive only minimal local news coverage. Nonetheless, the event will be credited with reigniting the fire behind America's modern LGBTQ+ rights movement.
The predecessor to the caucus was founded in January 1969 as the Democratic Select Committee by a group of black members of the House of Representatives. Black representatives had begun to enter the House in increasing numbers during the 1960s, and they had a desire for a formal organization. Further, Congressional redistricting in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement resulted in the number of black Congressmembers from 9 to 13. This organization was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus in February 1971.
In June 1971, Nixon officially declared a “War on Drugs,” stating that drug abuse was “public enemy number one.”
According to John Ehrlichman, Nixon's aide on domestic affairs: "The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I'm saying? We knew we couldn't make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news."
Before Carol Moseley Braun, before Barack Obama, before Hillary Clinton, Shirley Chisholm was both the first woman and the first African American to run for the nomination of a major party for President of the United States. Already the first black woman to be elected to the United States Congress in 1968, Chisholm made her ambitious attempt to win the White House decades before her country was ready for her, garnering just 152 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention.
Founded in May 1973, the National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO) addresses the double burden of sexism and racism faced by black women. The first meeting took place in New York City, New York and included prominent activists Michele Wallace, Margaret Sloan, Flo Kennedy, Faith Ringgold, and Doris Wright. The 1973 Statement of Purpose for the NBFO declared the organization was formed, “to address ourselves to the particular and specific needs of the larger, but almost cast-aside half of the black race in Amerikkka, the black woman.”
The New Era of mass incarceration in America began in 1973 and continues to this day. A new era of policymaking in the criminal justice system and the structural disadvantages that disproportionately impact people of color were the direct results of the establishment of the Prison Industrial Complex. These policies and disadvantages impact POC long before they have any interaction with the criminal justice system. Disparities that occur during imprisonment are the result of social factors including things related to poverty, employment, housing and family issues that may impact what happens to them during their very first encounter with law enforcement.
For the first time, the story of black Americans—and the remarkable talent of black actors—was prominently featured on network television. The show featured a vast array of African American talent, from newcomer LeVar Burton to Maya Angelou. The cultural impact of “Roots” was immediate. Critics and journalists lauded the series’ frank depiction of slavery, and the resulting (albeit difficult) conversations between black and white Americans about a previously taboo subject matter.
The most noteworthy component of Ronald Reagan’s two terms as leader of the free world are the laws, regulations, and policies passed under his two terms as President of the United States. These regulations soon became known as “Reaganomics”, a term that is still used today to describe these policies. Hidden underneath the manufactured depiction of Reaganomics were policies that created a permanent shift in American society which, as a result, disenfranchised minorities since they went into effect over thirty years ago.
the kkk rears its ugly head again
Klan activity had subsided in the 1970s, largely because of federal action against the organization. By the start of the 1980s, however, organized white supremacy had returned in force. A wave of cross burnings broke out across the country. Attacks on synagogues multiplied. The House Judiciary Committee convened a hearing to discuss near-daily reports of anti-black violence. Twenty-four African Americans and 2 white women who were with black men were murdered at random in 7 cities over the course of 15 months. A white sniper shot down 4 African Americans in 36 hours in Buffalo, just 2 weeks before 2 black taxi drivers in the city were killed and had their hearts cut out. Over the span of 16 months, 11 black children were murdered in Atlanta.
The new emphasis on criminal prosecution of the Drug War led to a huge increase in state and local law enforcement and prosecution- mostly concentrated in poor black communities. These communities were already suffering tremendously due to the major recession of the early 1980s. The "new war on drugs" is often associated with the crack vs. cocaine factor and its impact on marginalized communities.
racial profiling finds its way into justice system
Proponents of racial profiling often argue that it is an effective tool for finding individuals or groups engaged in criminal activity. Yet relying on race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation or other inherent/immutable characteristics has proven time and again to be an ineffective, and often costly, tactic. Empirical data from across the United States proves this point. The 1990's began the Era of racial profiling as a common practice.
3 strikes - universal criminalization of marginalized
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 implemented a rash of new three-strikes laws—laws that impose automatic life sentences for people convicted of certain felony offenses if they already have two convictions on their record. Dozens of states followed suit and enacted three-strikes laws, resulting in a ballooning of the incarceration rate in certain states, especially for black and Latinx Americans.
patriot act - new face of racism in the government
Shortly after the attacks of September 11, Congress passed the Patriot Act of 2001 without any debates or discussions regarding its effects. This complex legislation was passed without a clear and calm understanding about the manner in which this document would shape our nation and our liberties: fundamentally reducing our civil liberties and consequently encouraging racial profiling and hate crimes.
Just as key provisions of the Voting Rights Act are about to expire, English-only members of congress oppose its renewal because of the "expense of bilingual ballots". In August 2006, President Bush reauthorizes the Act, defending and supporting the voting rights for marginalized communities. The reauthorization Act is deemed the "Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, Coretta Scott King, and Cesar Chavez Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006."
The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is an American Act of Congress, passed on October 22, 2009, and signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, 2009, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010. The measure expands the 1969 U.S. Federal Hate Crime Law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability. The Act is named after two men murdered in hate crimes in 1998.
The U.S. Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed the repeal of “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” so that gay and lesbian people could serve openly in the military. One person present at the signing ceremony in the White House was Frank Kameny who had been released from military service in 1958 because of discriminatory policies against gay and lesbian people.